Treatments for type 1 and type 2 diabetes
Treatment for diabetes type 1 involves insulin injections or the use of an insulin pump, frequent blood sugar checks, and carbohydrate counting. Treatment of type 2 diabetes primarily involves monitoring of your blood sugar, along with diabetes medications, insulin or both.
- Monitoring your blood sugar. It is very important to check and record blood sugar level in a day for four to eight times as well as, it should be recorded in every week. It is very necessary that blood sugar level remains within your target level. For the people whose are insulin recipient should also monitor their blood sugar level with a continuous glucose monitor. With the help of usage of this person remains up-to-date about their blood sugar levels.
Sometimes very unpredictable change happens in blood sugar level, besides careful management. It is very important to consult your doctor or diabetes treatment team, you’ll learn how your blood sugar level changes in response to food, physical activity, medications, illness, alcohol, stress — for women, fluctuations in hormone levels.
With daily blood sugar monitoring, it is also important to check your average blood sugar level for past two or three month by regular A1C testing. A1C testing is very helpful for the judgment working of diabetes treatment plan as compared to repeated daily blood sugar tests. Any elevated A1C level may signal the need for a change in your insulin regimen or meal plan. According to age and various other factors your target A1C goal may vary. However, for most people with diabetes, the American Diabetes Association recommends an A1C of below 7 percent. Ask your doctor what your A1C target is.
Insulin. In diabetes type 1 and 2 and gestational diabetes insulin therapy is necessary. People with type 1 diabetes cannot make insulin because the beta cells in their pancreas are damaged or destroyed. Therefore, these people will need insulin injections to allow their body to process glucose and avoid complications from hyperglycemia.
People with type 2 diabetes do not respond well or are resistant to insulin. They may need insulin shots to help them better process sugar and to prevent long-term complications from this disease. Persons with type 2 diabetes may first be treated with oral medications, along with diet and exercise. Since type 2 diabetes is a progressive condition, the longer someone has it, the more likely they will require insulin to maintain blood sugar levels.
Various types of insulin are used to treat diabetes and include:
- Rapid-acting insulin: It starts working approximately 15 minutes after injection and peaks at approximately 1 hour but continues to work for two to four hours. This is usually taken before a meal and in addition to a long-acting insulin.
- Short-acting insulin: It starts working approximately 30 minutes after injection and peaks at approximately 2 to 3 hours but will continue to work for three to six hours. It is usually given before a meal and in addition to a long-acting insulin.
- Intermediate-acting insulin: It starts working approximately 2 to 4 hours after injection and peaks approximately 4 to 12 hours later and continues to work for 12-18 hours. It is usually taken twice a day and in addition to a rapid- or short-acting insulin.
- Long-acting insulin: It starts working after several hours after injection and works for approximately 24 hours. If necessary, it is often used in combination with rapid- or short-acting insulin.
Insulin can be given by a syringe, injection pen, or an insulin pump that delivers a continuous flow of insulin.
Your doctor will work with you to figure out which type of insulin is best for you depending on whether you have type 1 or type 2diabetes, your blood sugar levels, and your lifestyle
Oral or other medications. Type 2 diabetes results when the body is unable to produce the amount of insulin it needs to convert food into energy or when it is unable to use insulin appropriately. Sometimes the body is actually producing more insulin than is needed by a person to keep blood glucose in a normal range. Yet blood glucose remains high, because the body’s cells are resistant to the effects of insulin. Physicians and scientists believe that type 2 diabetes is caused by many factors, including insufficient insulin and insulin resistance. They increasingly believe that the relative contribution each factor makes toward causing diabetes varies from person to person.
It is important to know the name of your diabetes medicine (or medicines), how it is taken, the reasons for taking it and possible side-effects. Metformin (Glucophage, Glumetza, others) is generally the first medication prescribed for type 2 diabetes.
Transplantation. In some people who have type 1 diabetes, a pancreas transplant may be an option. Islet transplants are being studied as well. Islets are clusters of cells in the pancreas that make insulin. In people with type 1 diabetes, islet cells are destroyed. Only 1-2% of the pancreas is made up of islet cells.
In pancreatic islet transplantation, cells are taken from a donor pancreas and transferred into another person. Once implanted, the new islets begin to make and release insulin. Researchers hope that islet transplantation will help people with type 1 diabetes live without daily injections of insulin. But transplants aren’t always successful — and these procedures pose serious risks. You need a lifetime of immune-suppressing drugs to prevent organ rejection. These drugs can have serious side effects, including a high risk of infection, organ injury and cancer. Because the side effects can be more dangerous than the diabetes, transplants are usually reserved for people whose diabetes can’t be controlled or those who also need a kidney transplant.
- Bariatric surgery. Bariatric (obesity) surgery is performed to treat people who have morbid obesity. Currently, the indications for bariatric surgery are a body mass index of 35 or more with complications from the weight gain, or 40 or more with or without complications. Although it is not specifically considered a treatment for type 2 diabetes, people with type 2 diabetes who also have a body mass index higher than 35 may benefit from this type of surgery. However, this procedure’s long-term risks and benefits for type 2 diabetes aren’t yet known.
For More info about diabetes, you can visit https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/diabetes/overview/insulin-medicines-treatments